The Endocrine System
Your endocrine system is a collection of glands that produce hormones that regulate your body's growth, metabolism, and sexual development and function. The hormones are released into the bloodstream and transported to tissues and organs throughout your body. The Table below the illustration describes the function of these glands
Divided into 2 regions; secrete hormones that influence the body's metabolism, blood chemicals, and body characteristics, as well as influence the part of the nervous system that is involved in the response and defense against stress.
Activates and controls the part of the nervous system that controls involuntary body functions, the hormonal system, and many body functions, such as regulating sleep and stimulating appetite.
Ovaries and testicles
Secrete hormones that influence female and male characteristics, respectively.
Secretes a hormone (insulin) that controls the use of glucose by the body.
Secrete a hormone that maintains the calcium level in the blood.
Involved with daily biological cycles.
Produces a number of different hormones that influence various other endocrine glands.
Plays a role in the body's immune system.
Produces hormones that stimulate body heat production, bone growth, and the body's metabolism.
Source: AMA's Current Procedural Terminology, Revised 1998 Edition. CPT is a trademark of the American Medical Associatio
The Digestive System
Your digestive system consists of organs that break down food into components that your body uses for energy and for building and repairing cells and tissues.
Food passes down the throat, down through a muscular tube called the esophagus, and into the stomach, where food continues to be broken down. The partially digested food passes into a short tube called the duodenum (first part of the small intestine). The jejunum and ileum are also part of the small intestine. The liver, the gallbladder, and the pancreas produce enzymes and substances that help with digestion in the small intestine.
The last section of the digestive tract is the large intestine, which includes the cecum, colon, and rectum. The appendix is a branch off the large intestine; it has no known function. Indigestible remains of food are expelled through the anus.
Diagram of the Eye
Wet macular degeneration:
The more serious type of macular degeneration, where weak blood vessels form under the macula. The blood vessels break and leak blood and fluid, which leads to central vision loss (loss of images seen from the center of the eye).
Perforation of tympanic membrane due to insertion of a 'q' tip. This is likely to result in both an otitis media and otitis externa
Tympanostomy tubes or "T tubes" may improve hearing rapidly and provide for drainage. It is estimated that between 500,000 and 2 million tubes are placed on an annual basis in the United States. These tubes usually come out by themselves in about 6 months. Usually this treatment is for the serous va
RESPIRATORY SYSTEM: BASIC FUNCTION
The Respiratory System — Basic Function
Your respiratory system provides the energy needed by cells of the body. Air is breathed in through the nasal cavity and/or mouth and down through the throat (the pharynx). The throat has three parts - the nasopharynx, the oropharynx, and the laryngopharynx. The air passes down the trachea (the windpipe), through the left and right bronchi, and into the lungs. Oxygen in the blood is delivered to body cells, where the oxygen and glucose in the cells undergo a series of reactions to provide energy to cells, and the waste product of this process is carried out of the lungs.
The larynx is your voice box; the epiglottis, a flap of cartilage that prevents food from entering the trachea; and the esophagus, the tube through which food passes to the stomach.
RESPIRATORY SYSTEM: GLOSSARY
The Respiratory System - Glossary
Bronchi: The two main air passages into the lungs.
Diaphragm: The main muscle used for breathing; separates the chest cavity from the abdominal cavity.
Epiglottis: A flap of cartilage that prevents food from entering the trachea (or windpipe).
Esophagus: The tube through which food passes from the mouth down into the stomach.
Heart: The muscular organ that pumps blood throughout the body.
Intercostal muscles: Thin sheets of muscle between each rib that expand (when air is inhaled) and contract (when air is exhaled).
Larynx: Voice box.
Lungs: The two organs that extract oxygen from inhaled air and expel carbon dioxide in exhaled air.
Muscles attached to the diaphragm: These muscles help move the diaphragm up and down for breathing.
Nasal cavity: Interior area of the nose; lined with a sticky mucous membrane and contains tiny, surface hairs called cilia.
Nose hairs: Located at the entrance of the nose, these hairs trap large particles that are inhaled.
Paranasal sinuses: Air spaces within the skull.
Pharynx: The throat.
Pleural membrane: Covering the lung and lining the chest cavity, this membrane has 2 thin layers.
Pulmonary vessels: Pulmonary arteries carry deoxygenated blood from the heart and lungs; pulmonary veins carry oxygenated blood back to the heart.
Respiratory center: Area of the brain that controls breathing.
Ribs: Bones attached to the spine and central portion of the breastbone, which support the chest wall and protect the heart, lungs, and other organs in the chest.
Trachea: Tube through which air passes from the nose to the lungs (also known as the windpipe).
Illustration Provided by: Leslie Laurien, M.S.M.I.
SKELETON AND DISC
HAND AND CARPAL TUNNEL
The Carpal Tunnel
The carpal tunnel is the area under a ligament (a tough, elastic band of tissue that connects bones and organs in place) in front of the wrist. The median nerve, which passes through the carpal tunnel, supplies the thumb side of the hand. Repetitive movements of the hand and wrist can cause inflammation of structures (such as tendons and their coverings) that surround the median nerve. The inflammation may compress this nerve, producing numbness, tingling, and pain in the first three fingers and the thumb side of the hand-a condition known as carpal tunnel syndrome.
Illustration provided by: Leslie Laurien, M.S.M.I.
© Copyright 1999 American Medical Association
Back.com - Anatomy
Back.com - Anatomy
The spinal column is one of the most vital parts of the human body, supporting our trunks and making all of our movements possible. When the spine is injured and its function is impaired the consequences can be painful and even disabling. According to estimates, 80 percent of Americans will experience low back pain at least once in their lifetime. A small number of patients will develop chronic or degenerative spinal disorders that can be disabling.
Men and women are equally affected by lower back pain, and most back pain occurs between the ages of 25 and 60. However, no age is completely immune. Approximately 12% to 26% of children and adolescents suffer from low back pain. Fortunately most low back pain is acute, and will resolve itself in three days to six weeks with or without treatment. If pain and symptoms persist for longer than 3 months to a year, the condition is considered chronic.
Humans are born with 33 separate vertebrae. By adulthood, most have only 24, due to the fusion of the vertebrae in certain parts of the spine during normal development. The lumbar spine consists of 5 vertebrae called L1 through -L5. Below the lumbar spine, nine vertebrae at the base of the spine grow together. Five form the triangular bone called the sacrum. The two dimples in most everyone's back (historically known as the "dimples of Venus") are where the sacrum joins the hipbones, called the sacroiliac joint. The lowest four vertebrae form the tailbone or coccyx.
The anatomy of the spinal column is extremely well designed to serve many functions. All of the elements of the spinal column and vertebrae serve the purpose of protecting the spinal cord, which provides communication to the brain, mobility and sensation in the body through the complex interaction of bones, ligaments and muscle structures of the back and the nerves that surround it. The back is also the powerhouse for the entire body, supporting our trunks and making all of the movements of our head, arms, and legs possi
SHOULDER AND ROTATOR CUFF
infraspinatus, teres minor subscapularis.
The shoulder is made up of three bones:
scapula (shoulder blade),
humerus (upper arm bone)
THE ROTATOR CUFF is made up of the tendons of four muscles
COMMON ROTATOR CUFF TEAR(SUPRASPINITUS)